Preview Manual Contents


Sections Completed

Part One: Components of the language

Words and their Work 1

  • Sounds that mean something and become words
  • Different jobs for different words – parts of speech

Words and their Work 2

  • How words become expressions, phrases, clauses and sentences
  • Subject and predicate – What a sentence is about
  • How we pick up words – learning from reading

Punctuation 1

  • Capital letters, full stops, dashes, hyphens, colons, semi-colons, brackets and apostrophes

Punctuation 2

  • Commas
  • Pauses
  • Direct speech, inverted commas/speech marks and reported speech
  • Lists
  • Phrases and clauses used in apposition – repeating information to make it clearer
  • Non-defining clauses and defining clauses – organising information clearly

Part Two: Assembling the components – Understanding, analysis and effects

Sentences  – composed

  • Simple, compound and complex – how sentences are put together
  • Balanced, loose and periodic – getting the message across


  • Analysis – see how groups of words work together
  • Subject and predicate again – more work on an the importance of knowing what it is that we are talking about and what we are saying about it

Key ideas

  • Précis, summary – getting to the point, to the heart of the matter


  • Different kinds of questions. Key words and ideas. Relevant answers.  and answers – introduce the uses to which a sentence can be put (v. next section)

Sentences – functioning

  • Indicative/interrogative/imperative/ – statements, questions, instructions, exclamation – implicit and explicit – passive and active voices – fact and opinion. The subjunctive mood

Sections Planned

Sentences – assembled

  • Application and purpose, paragraphs. Essays, discussion, persuasion, letters, instructions, reports and articles


  • Grammar – easier than you think – used in punctuation.   Spelling     Handwriting Redundant words

Part Three

Effective expression – communicating ideas   (Reinforcing Sections One and Two)

  • Uses to which the language is put: formal and informal (official or unofficial), poetic and informative, functional and imaginative
  • Diction – denotation and connotation (choice of words)
  • Syntax (word order), breaking the rules, emphasis, suggestion and assertion
  • Registers (levels) of formality
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